El Water is not only life but is vital energy for the sustainable development of humanity.
Cloudy water can contain a lot of electrical energy. I wish we knew how to store the enormous amount of energy that clouds release in the form of lightning. A single beam is said to have enough energy to light up a small city for several days. But since we have not invented this technology yet, let's talk about the relationship that, until today, water has with the energy we produce. Energy manifests itself in many forms: light, heat, wind, magnetic, gravitational, nuclear, kinetic, biochemical, chemical, mechanical, electrical. The latter, the electric one, has provided such versatility in its uses and applications that it has become fundamental in modern society. You could not be reading this text on the Internet if electricity did not exist. Life as we know it cannot exist without electricity; nerve impulses, for example, are electrical impulses. Today, electricity is involved in almost all production processes and in the daily life of most people. The constant production of electrical energy is essential and water is intimately involved in almost all the methods to obtain it.
How is energy produced electric?
There are many ways: by chemical reactions, by friction, by heat ... but the most used way is the one that uses magnets and dynamos whose rotation produces positive and negative magnetic alternations that release electrons, that is, electricity. The large generating plants that supply the networks are based on this system. What about water? What does it have to do with all this? It is basically used to spin magnets, dynamos, generators.
Clean energy for a dirty planet
The force of the currents of liquid water is transformed, by means of turbines, into mechanical energy that turns the generators; or the pressure of water as steam is controlled to turn turbines. The first type of generating plants are hydroelectric ones. They are generally related to water storage dams that little by little release water through their gates; the energy from the water current turns the generators.
Another way to take advantage of water flows to produce energy is based on the tides. Every day the water level of the oceans rises and falls due to the attraction of the sun and the moon. This energy of gravity and flow is what is used. Although incipient, little by little tidal-based power plant projects are being developed. Hydroelectric plants have the advantage of a longer useful life (2 to 10 times longer) than coal or fuel plants.
Hydroelectric plants supply about 20% of the world's electricity, and 6% of total commercial energy. Estimated total electricity supply by hydroelectric power in several countries:
99% in Norway
75% in New Zealand
50% in developing countries
25% in China
13% in United States
The power plants that use steam pressure to turn turbines are geothermal and nuclear power plants. Geothermal plants use the natural high temperatures of the subsurface to evaporate water and the energy from the steam turns turbines. The same happens with nuclear power plants, which take advantage of the enormous heat of atomic fission to evaporate water and also turn generator turbines (only that radioactive material as raw and residual material is highly dangerous due to radioactive emissions, as well as due to the constant risk of a nuclear explosion).
Unfortunately, there are many engine-based power plants that burn Fossil fuels to run the generators. This huge fuel burn produces thousands of tons of C02 and other greenhouse gases that cause global climate change, which kills water-producing ecosystems. It is necessary to reduce (or eliminate) C02 emissions into the atmosphere by switching to environmentally friendly technologies such as solar energy, wind energy or hydrogen cells.
Hydropower plants can be thought of as environmentally friendly, but building huge dams carries a very serious environmental impact: diversion of rivers and natural runoff, transformation or destruction of huge natural areas with the corresponding loss of biodiversity, to name a few examples. Experts in the field recommend the creation of micro dams, whose impact on nature is much less since they do not require such extensive areas or diversion of rivers and natural runoff. Its impact on biodiversity is much less.
Water and energy are closely linked and interdependent. On the one hand, to produce and transmit energy it is necessary to use water, in particular for hydroelectric, nuclear and thermal energy sources. On the other hand, around 8% of the energy generated in the world is used to extract and treat water and bring it to consumers. Furthermore, access to water and energy has a decisive impact on alleviating poverty.
In Mexico there are 11.5 million people without access to drinking water, 15 million without access to sewerage, and 3 million without electricity. The demand for fresh water and energy will continue to increase significantly in the coming decades, therefore save water and avoiding its waste from now on is imperative. It is essential to maintain optimum from the aqueduct systems to the plumbing your house, and even consider capturing rain water to avoid ending the water reservoirs in an accelerated manner.